Cognitive bias—a topic we have addressed previously—is a significant factor in racism. We are usually unaware of these biases and therefore they can be particularly pernicious. Read a summary of implicit bias here, including one study that gives insight into police shootings.
The history of race in our country has led to significant generational trauma and that generational trauma negatively influences the health and well-being of persons of color. Generational trauma is described here and a range of relevant research is summarized here.
Income differences fall starkly along racial lines in America (graphs like these are striking). Poverty then impacts physical and mental health, including an individual’s DNA as described in this research.
Constructs of race and the reality of racism have clear negative impacts on black and brown persons. A medical researcher summarizes some of the relevant studies here.
Humans share 99.9% of the same genetic material, regardless of complexion or other physical features. There is no genetic sequence that can be used to identify racial groups. Biological anthropologist Agustin Fuentes explains what we know about race and genetics and that race remains real not as a biological category but as a social one.