Any discussion of race and science must include the many historical ways science has been used against non-white Americans. Some of that history is described here. Two of the more prominent instances include the Tuskegee Study and the experience of Henrietta Lacks.
Martin Luther King, Jr. famously noted that Sunday mornings at 11am were the most segregated hour of the week in America. A 2015 Lifeway survey suggests that this has not changed and that churchgoers think that is ok.
Cognitive bias—a topic we have addressed previously—is a significant factor in racism. We are usually unaware of these biases and therefore they can be particularly pernicious. Read a summary of implicit bias here, including one study that gives insight into police shootings.
The history of race in our country has led to significant generational trauma and that generational trauma negatively influences the health and well-being of persons of color. Generational trauma is described here and a range of relevant research is summarized here.
Income differences fall starkly along racial lines in America (graphs like these are striking). Poverty then impacts physical and mental health, including an individual’s DNA as described in this research.